Upper Left Quadrant Details Upper Right Quadrant Details Lower Left Quadrant Details Lower Right Quadrant Details Details



The upper right quadrant presents the dominant party of modern democratic regimes, where elections for parliamentary representation determine the power structure within and among parties. Contrast this with parties in LLQ, where oligarchies control mass mobilization based on class (or ethnic, religious, center-periphery) cleavages. In ULQ mass parties face the challenge of incorporating their highly participatory constituencies into the legislative arena, by building large coalitions of conflicting interests. At the lower right, we find the recent evolution of Schumpeter-Downs' assumptions of economic democracy: parties marketing electoral and policy options through polling.