Upper Left Quadrant Details Upper Right Quadrant Details Lower Left Quadrant Details Lower Right Quadrant Details Details



There is general agreement that entitlement to governing is limited to "membership in the city", which is esentially the formal definition of citizen and citizenship.
From its Greek roots all through its medieval developments, citizenship was a collective attribute, which could not be exercised as a private individual right. The conception of citizenship as an individual property of the private self only came with Christianity, as recently as the Renaissance, reinforced and given impetus by the American and French Revolutions and nineteenth century practices. Along with a persisting tension between the collective and individual nature of citizenship, we find the age-old dilemma of participation, shown here on the horizontal axis. Membership -- citizenship -- means participation. But as the scale of the city increased, the meaning of citizenship changed, moving, as it were, on the horizontal axis towards representative government.
The original idea for promoting citizenship on a large scale through representation consisted of combining collective membership with social and/or economic status (LRQ). At first, citizenship respected the status and class orders of the late feudal systems. Corporate citizenship did at last become the object of overt opposition and warfare. From this perspective, the most important result of the "age of the democratic revolution" of the late eighteenth century was the virtual abolition of legally recognized corporate groups and the coupling, or re-coupling, of citizenship on a voluntary and individualistic basis (ULQ). Yet, by stressing voluntariness and the liberty of forming new groups as well as exiting them, the emphasis in citizenship had shifted back on participation and on small size associations, while the main problem of the modern state remained one of reconciling the large scale of its operations with universal membership. This was accomplished by developing three parts of citizenship "...dictated by history even more clearly than by logic". Marshall calls these "three parts, or elements, civil, political and social" (URQ). In many respects, yet, social citizenship already represents a departure from the universalism of civil and political rights. Which leads to the revival of cultural identities in contemporary societies around old issues of ethnicity and race or new ones of gender and human rights (LLQ).